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How A Permanent Magnet Generator Works?

What Are Generators?

A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. A generator is the opposite of a motor — instead of transforming electrical energy into mechanical energy, it gives off the electricity by using its kinetic and potential energy.

Generators use permanent magnets to create electricity. These magnets are called electromagnets since they are subjected to electric current.

Having a generator on hand is crucial when it comes to home appliances and other devices powered by electricity. Generators are used worldwide in homes and businesses, powering everything from air conditioners to neon signs.


Permanent magnets and generators

Permanent magnets are a key part of these generators. By providing the magnetic field, permanent magnets allow manufacturers to create compact designs that can be used in various applications.

Most generators use electromagnetic coils to generate electricity. These coils are wrapped around iron laminations — a structure that increases the strength of the coil — to provide magnetic field lines. The iron laminations create resistance, which makes generators noisy and less efficient. It is good to use next-generation, high-density neodymium magnets to do away with these iron laminations, allowing for a compact generator that runs practically silently and at greater efficiency.


Direct-Current Generators

The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) is a highly efficient, reliable, and durable machine that is environmentally friendly. The PMG has fewer moving parts and produces almost no vibrations — making it more resistant to wear and tear. Its energy efficiency is unparalleled. That's why a PMG can be driven by AC or DC voltage as well as direct high-voltage current. This high direct current is used in power-electronics circuits, such as inverters; many of them are used in high-demanding cases like hybrid and electric vehicles.


Neodymium Magnets (NdFeB) are famous for their limited magnetization and heating, high maximum energy product, high coercively, and thermal stability. These magnets are widely used in automobiles, electric cable, electrical products, and peripheral computer industries. They can pull up heavy objects that weigh over 400 pounds! They're also incredibly efficient and environmentally friendly — they use 40% less material than smaller traditional magnets, so they cause less waste during production.


How does A Permanent Magnet Generator work?

Magnetic fields rotate a metal conductor at high speeds with very little friction. Michael Faraday discovered the basic principle of motor-generator operation in 1821. A rotating magnetic field causes an induced current in a conductor, creating an electromotive force (EMF). They work the same way as AC motors, but they generate direct currents instead of alternating currents.

The commutator connects the rotor to the stator through rotating contact surfaces with sliding carbon brushes which permit current to flow during the one-half cycle and break contact during the other half cycle. When there are zero rates of change of flux in the coil, the electromotive force induced in the generator immediately reverses the polarity and hence the direction of rotation.—i.e., The voltage output of a permanent magnet DC motor is dependent on the speed of the motor and the phase difference between the stator winding(s) and the rotor field. The phase difference is given by, if a capacitor is placed across the supply, then when the rotor reverses, current flows in one direction through the capacitor, charging and discharging it at twice the line frequency.


Each coil is connected to a segment on a multi-bar commutator. The output voltage is proportional to the rotor speed and the magnetic flux. This means that you can control the voltage by controlling the AC in the field - which is exactly what voltage regulators do. So the degree of output voltage control is based on the current flowing in the field coils. Magnitude control is normally achieved by controlling DC current flowing through the field coils.


Advantages of PMG

  • Low torque ripple – This motor is made of premium quality materials and can withstand high torque applications, with a unique design that maintains full torque at low speeds.
  • High efficiency – A permanent magnet motor can be more efficient than a standard AC induction motor. This is because of the permanent magnets within its rotor that reduce energy loss from eddy currents, which occur when a conductor cuts through a magnetic field. Since there is no coil on its rotor, it generates less heat and can operate at higher speeds for longer periods.
  • Low maintenance cost- A brushless motor uses a permanent magnet as its rotor. This eliminates the need for a commutator and brushes, making it maintenance-free. However, its high initial cost is a disadvantage.
  • Low heat generation – The brushless motor produces no vibration or noise. You can operate the machine with peace of mind and without the irritating sounds of the rattling motor found on common brands.
  • DC power source – It doesn't need an additional DC power source. The stator provides the AC supply, and the permanent magnets are on the rotor. This unique feature allows it to work anywhere, anytime.



Permanent magnet synchronous motors are brushless direct-current electric motors that drive electrically powered devices and applications. The Permanent magnet Synchronous series of motors deliver controllable speed and power while maintaining high efficiency. They're widely used in robotics, machines, and actuators and are even considered for use in high-power applications such as industrial drives and vehicular propulsion. In simple terms, they are motors that use very strong magnets to generate force instead of using an electric current to generate the force to spin the shaft.

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